Executive Order 12501 – Arctic Research (January 1985)


The Executive Order 12501 of Jan. 28, 1985, formally established the United States Arctic Research Commission (USARC) and the Interagency Arctic

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Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 (amended 1990)


PUBLIC LAW 98-373 – July 31,1984; amended as PUBLIC LAW 101-609 – November 16, 1990 An Act To provide for

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National Security Decision Memorandum 144 (December 1971)


In December 1971, President Nixon produced National Security Decision Memorandum 144 to address the United States’ stance toward the Arctic.

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